How Did the Cannabis High Help to Transform our Society?

What is it like to be high on marijuana? Can a cannabis high help to remember long gone events, to fuel your imagination, to work creatively, to come to introspective and other insights, to empathically understand others, and to personally grow? How much did cannabis inspire outstanding thinkers, artists and musicians like Charles Baudelaire, Rudyard Kipling, Walter Benjamin, Billie Holiday, Diego Rivera, John Lennon, Carl Sagan, Hal Ashby, and so many others? And how much did the marijuana high positively transfom our society?

“What Hashish Did To Walter Benjamin – Mind-Altering Essays on Cannabis” is a collection of 20 groundbreaking neurophilosophically inspired essays on the astounding positive potential of the cannabis high. The essays summarize more than ten years of Marincolos research and are written for a wide audience. This deep new exploration of the marijuana high as an altered state of consiousness addresses educated marijuana users and their relatives, medical cannabis professionals and patients, as well as neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers interested in the subject of altered states of consciousness.

“Sebastian Marincolo’s work is terrific and is going to make a big contribution to the field.”
Lester Grinspoon, medical marijuana expert and Harvard Associate Prof. Emer. for Psychiatry

Buy the book here

How to Get Creative on Cannabis

Can a cannabis high make you more creative? The short answer is: Yes – if you know how to use it. Here is an article about my research on cannabis and creativity with a link to my course that teachers users to use cannabis for creative thinking and work. Enjoy:

https://www.learngreenflower.com/articles/577/cannabis-and-creativity

 

Henri Michaux and The Flying Carpet: Cannabis Explorations of an Unique Mind

„Everywhere I go I find that a poet has been there before me.“

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

He was admired by many of his contemporaries both for his poetry and writing as well as for his unique paintings. The French writer Andre Gide was so fascinated by his work that he wrote a book to promote him entitled Let’s Discover Henri Michaux. The eminent German Poet Paul Celan, who translated Michaux into German, thought that Michaux’s work was just as enigmatic and hard to decipher as Kafka’s writings. The art critic Peter Schjedahl wrote about him in the New York Times:

„He strikes me as being one of the most palpably authentic of post-war European artists. Influenced by Ernst and Klee, he created an art of energized ideograms and meandering calligraphy, of figures evolving haphazardly out of weltering chaos, or of the chaos asserting itself to wipe out anything recognizable.“[1]

 

Untitled Chinese Ink Drawing 1961 Henri Michaux 1899-1984 Purchased 1963 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T00577

Untitled Chinese Ink Drawing 1961 Henri Michaux 1899-1984 Purchased 1963 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T00577

 

Michaux was born in 1899 in the small Belgian town of Namur, the very town where the French writer and poet Charles Baudelaire died. Like Baudelaire and the German philosopher Walter Benjamin, Michaux experimented with several psychoactive substances including hashish to explore what he would call the “space inside.” Baudelaire, Benjamin, and Michaux certainly belong to the most vigorous, proficient, and brilliant psychonauts ever.[2]All three of them were prodigious literates and explicitly set out to self-experiment with hashish determined to express their journeys into the inner realm of consciousness.

Like Baudelaire and Benjamin, Michaux left us with incredibly perceptive, poetic and sometimes cryptic descriptions of the effects of cannabis on the human mind. Michaux is much better know for his writing on his mescaline experiments – he also created many of his more famous paintings under the influence of this substance – yet his writing on hashish is just as profound and insightsful. Like the writing of Baudelaire, and Benjamin’s protocols written under the influence of the hashish high, Michaux’s writing needs decoding and interpretation. But from all we know about the cannabis high today we can say that he beautifully and accurately described many of the most amazing effects of the cannabis high in meticulous detail.

The three dedicated psychonauts often experimented with very large ingested doses of hashish, which led to much more pronounced effects on their mind and body than those experienced by most modern recreational users after having a few tokes from a vaporizer or smoking a few joints. This allowed them to make observations on some extreme effects, which help to understand the nature of the marijuana high. It is especially interesting to see in how much vivid detail Michaux described many interesting cognitive and perceptual enhancements of the hashish high.[3]

 

A Sense of Wonder, Hyperfocus, and Stereovision

In his book “Miserable Miracle”, Michaux notes:

“Anyone who takes hashish as an experiment witness after taking mescaline leaves a racing automobile or a long distance electric locomotive for a pony.”

He adds in a footnote: “A pony, however, is capable of surprises not to be looked from a locomotive.”[4]

During a high, Michaux finds many surprises – and he follows their trail.

Myriads of cannabis users have reported that a cannabis high makes them feel as if they would perceive something for the first time; whatever comes to their attention often comes with a strong feeling of awe and curiosity. This is certainly one of the great enhancements a high can bring. For the philosophers Aristotle and Plato, the feeling of awe and amazement towards something perceived or contemplated is the very beginning of all philosophy. If we feel this, we do not take something as given anymore and we wonder about it, we start our investigation. Many cannabis user had this feeling of awe seeing an landscape, hearing music, or experiencing a kiss as if it was for the first time.

In his book Miserable Miracle, Michaux writes:

“(…) whatever Hashish displays interests me. I follow it all the way. I want to know the end. I want to know where it is taking me.”[5]

Looking at a photograph, he writes: “And I so devoured this colored landscape with a new eagerness. How wonderful looking it is! A new youth came back to me, one of the subtlest, the youth of the eye.”[6]

Michaux also observes that the hashish high focuses his attention (I have often called this the “hyperfocus”-effect of attention during a high):

“With Hashish in me I am a falcon. If I give a circular glance it will be only once, as one makes a general survey, not to be repeated. I am against dispersion. I look for an object in order to follow its trail. (…) Nothing can distract me.”

When looking at a photography during a high, Michaux notes a that he can see with ‘marvelous optical dexterity’. He describes and names ‘stereovision’ of a photograph – which makes him see the photo better ‘in depth’– and also describes ‘stereoaudition’ of sounds.

An enhanced ability for stereovision has also been reported by other cannabis users, such as an anonymous planetary geologist to Lester Grinspoon’s collection of anecdotal reports of marijuana-users. This scientist reports that planetary geologists rely on two stereo image photos of planetary landscapes taken from two slightly different angles by satellites and that usually, one needs a mechanical device like a stereo-opticon to judge depth perception from those paired photos:

stereo-photography, vision

“An early stereo image photo which can create the illusion of depth with a mechanica aid. The illusion can also be created with an animated gif using a rapid succession of such stereo images: See for instance: http://stereo.nypl.org/view/21724”

„But one evening we smoked some especially potent marihuana, purely for pleasure. I amused myself by looking at a pair of stereo photographs that had been left in the room. Suddenly the two pictures merged into a single three-dimensional view. It was like a gift from God.“[7]

 

Altered Body Image Perception and The Flying Carpet

Interestingly, Michaux also notes a drastic change in his perception of his own body. Many users have times again reported that they have intensified body sensations during a high. Under very strong dosages, users report body image distortions (such as feeling that one’s foot must be 3 meters away) as well as ‘loosing their body’ completely. Likewise, Michaux writes:

“At the time I did not know that the sensation of floating in the air, of being weightless, was one of the characteristics of hashish. The flying carpet is not just a legend, but an old reality in Persia and Arabia where for centuries Indian hemp made people float on the air and travel through the skies.” [8]

 

Flying Carpet

Enhanced Episodic Memory, Imagination, and Transforming Imagery

Apart from those perceptual changes, Michaux describes the enhancement of his episodic memory retrieval during his high:

“Later on at home I begin vaguely going over in my mind a scene of a motion picture seen a few days before, when suddenly the noises and the voices from the episode – “burst out” and violently throw themselves at me. A memory revived, but stronger than the original expression.”

His experience with an intensified imagery during a high supposedly comes from ingesting a large dosages of hashish which can cause visual ‘trips’:

“These images were distinct, stayed quietly in place. I had enough time (just enough) to see them clearly. It was like a series of very short scenes in color, very well composed (…).”[9]

Interestingly, Michaux also notes how these images went through associative transformations, a process which can easily be seen to be a rich source of creative exploration for an artist:

“A rope I was watching, coiling there, suddenly ended in the red muzzle of a little feline, (a sort of ocelot, it looked to me, (…) its neck being made of rope, although its muzzle was very life-like and menacing). (…) Another time a complicated assemblage of metal pieces I am examining suddenly turns into a machine gun pointing at me.”[10]

 

Enhanced Empathic Understanding

We have countless reports from inspirational users of marijuana about how a high helped them to empathically understand others, to better imaginative to be in the situation of somebody else and to feel this person’s feelings. For a few years now, adults as well as children with various forms of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported to profit immensely from consumed cannabis. Under the influence of a high, they seem to be better able to understand the emotions and needs of others around them.[11]

Reading a text during a high, Michaux finds that hashish can help to understand and “feel” the author’s personality:

“You can hear the authors in person (….) Words no longer play any part. The man who is behind them comes out in front. (…) The text, at whatever point you pick it up, becomes a voice, (…) and the man speaks behind this voice. The man who wrote it is there. Hashish opens the inner space of sentences (…). The author thus unmasked never altogether recovered his mantle or his former retreat ”[12]

In another passage, Michaux indicates that during a high his thinking is what other users have described as “almost telepathic.” Michaux writes he is

“(w)ith a look that thinks, thinks and goes through the other person’s head”. [13]

One another day, Michaux is walking on the street and his attention is arrested by voice of a girl passing by. Again, he feels as if he could “read” the girl’s mind, only through that short, fleeting experience of listening to her talking:

“I continued to dwell in it amorously – a voice, hardly mature, and genuinely shy, that made you forget everything else, a voice that implored protection, so wary of the phenomenon of speech, advancing so cautiously like a foot at the edge of a precipice, or fingers held out towards the fire. (…) I really should have turned back, caught up with her, (…) got to know this girl, so elegant in her apprehensions, so touching and distinguished in her tiny boldness, which must have seemed enormous to her, so delicately adventurous in her loss of reserve as she took her first tentative step.”[14]

Is it really plausible that Michaux can read all this from the mere sound of a voice of a girl he did not even see? In my book High. Insights on Marijuana I have argued that a cannabis high can indeed lead to various cognitive enhancements such as a hyperfocus of attention and an enhanced ability for pattern recognition, which could explain why Michaux could read that much from her voice in just a few moments. He focuses strongly on the voice and recognizes patterns he has heard before in other voices; typical sound patterns similar to those of other people he experienced as expressing insecurity, boldness, and shyness.

Modern ‘simulation’-theories of empathic understanding stress that it is absolutely vital for us to imaginatively put ourselves in the place of others in order to understand them better; it is as if we would simulate another person in his situation, feeling the feeling he is going through and thereby understanding him. [15] Michaux describes clearly how he feels that during a high his enhanced ability to empathize with others in this way. He looks at a photography during a high and observes:

“I was looking through a magazine at some photographs of those amazing divers of the New Hebrides who, held back by long lianas, leap head-first from a rustic tower fifty feet or so high, landing on the ground slowed down … I was conscious of the distances, I estimated as though I were up there o the top of the tower, myself the man, (…), even having the sensation of dizziness, and even after turing the page, still feel myself on top of the tower, still at that terrifying heigh.“[16]

Landdiving, Indonesia

Image “’The Tower’, Pentecost Island Vanatu”, by Paul Stein”

 

Poets, Psychonauts, and the Value of Anecdotal Evidence

The majority of past scientific studies designed to research the cognitive and perceptual changes during a cannabis high were seriously flawed. Usually, the participants of those experiments had no previous experience with the substance, came with negative convictions and did not know what to expect. Most of the resulting anxious reactions were caused by a sterile clinical set and setting in which observing scientists would control the set-up and their dosages. Usually, the participants of those studies had no special abilities to observe and report their own mental states.

More than forty-five years ago, the Harvard psychiatrist Lester Grinspoon and the Harvard psychologist Charles Tart came to the conclusion that therefore, they could better study the effects of marijuana on the mind by collecting and analyzing anecdotal reports of habitual marijuana users. In his seminal book Marijuana Reconsidered (1971), Lester Grinspoon was bold enough to include and evaluate many reports from writers and artists like Fitz Hugh Lludlow, Baudelaire, and Michaux. Another great compilation which included a selection of literary and imaginative papers on cannabis was the book The Marijuana Papers edited David Solomon already in 1966.

Lester Grinspoon reminded us that we have to carefully evaluate these reports. Poets like Baudelaire would for instance sometimes use opiates or other substances along with their hashish, so some of the effects reported could not really be attributed to the ingestion of cannabis alone.

Many of the writers featured by Grinspoon and Solomon left us an incredible treasure with their poetic and yet oft highly detailed and precise descriptions of the cannabis high, which some of them had set out to explore.

Michaux, like other writers and fellow psychonauts, left us beautiful and rich descriptions of many of the perceptual and cognitive enhancements that the cannabis high can bring, including stereovision, stereoaudition, a hyperfocus of attention, an enhanced episodic memory, an enhanced imagination, and an enhanced ability to empathically understand others.

Many of his observations have been supported by countless detailed anecdotal reports of other inspirational users and, also, by experiences of innumerable medical patients like those with autistic spectrum syndrome who profited from the use of cannabis. It is time that scientists of various fields now start to take another look at these reports to better understand how consumed cannabis can effect our mind and bodies – and, connectedly, to understand which role the endocannabinoid system might play in those highly developed cognitive processes.

 

This article first apeared on my expert blog for Sensi Seeds here:

https://sensiseeds.com/en/blog/henri-michaux-cannabis-flying-carpet-part/

https://sensiseeds.com/en/blog/henri-michaux-cannabis-flying-carpet-part-ii/

 

[1] Quoted from Douglas McGill, „Henri Michaux, Poet and Artist“, http://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/23/obituaries/henri-michaux-poet-and-artist.html

[2] In his book “Approaches to Drugs and Intoxication” (1970), the German author Ernst Jünger coined the term “psychonaut” for someone who explores the inner realms of his consciousness by means of consciousness-altering substances.

[3] For an overview on some possible cognitive enhancements during a high see my Essay “The Ten Most Useful Mind-Enhancements During a High”, http://sensiseeds.com/en/blog/the-10-most-useful-mind-enhancements-of-a-cannabis-high/

[4] Henri Michaux, „Miserable Miracle“, Chapter 4, Indian Hemp http://www.lycaeum.org/books/books/miserablemiracle/chap4.html

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Anonymous, „Cannabis and Planetary Surfaces“, in: Lester Grinspoon (ed.), „marijuana-uses.com) 2016, http://marijuana-uses.com/cannabis-and-planetary-surfaces-by-anonymous/

[8] Henri Michaux, „Miserable Miracle“, Chapter 4, Indian Hemp http://www.lycaeum.org/books/books/miserablemiracle/chap4.html

[9] Ibid.

[10] Henri Michaux, „Miserable Miracle“, Chapter 4, Indian Hemp http://www.lycaeum.org/books/books/miserablemiracle/chap4.html

[11] Compare my essay „Marijuana, Empathy, and Severe Cases of Autism“, http://sensiseeds.com/en/blog/marijuana-empathy-severe-cases-autism-part/

[12] Henri Michaux (1961), Light Through Darkness, Orion Press, New York pp.124-127.

[13] Henri Michaux, „Miserable Miracle“, Chapter 4, Indian Hemp http://www.lycaeum.org/books/books/miserablemiracle/chap4.html

[14] Ibid, p.7.

[15] Compare for instance Alvin Goldmann (2006) Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology and Neuroscience of Mindreading, Oxford University Press, USA.

[16] Ibid.

How to Use Cannabis for Mind-Enhancments – New Online Course Now Online

new online course about how to use cannabis for mind-enhancments

These 10 cannabis-activated tools can make you smarter, more creative, and more connected to who you truly are.

Did you know that the psychoactive properties of cannabis can be used as a very powerful tool for developing parts of you that you might not access otherwise? In fact, when used with the right guidance and intention, cannabis can help you imagine new possibilities for your life that you couldn’t see before, clear patterns of behavior that aren’t serving you anymore, and experience deep insights about who you truly are and why you’re here on earth.

During this very exciting new course, Dr. Sebastián Marincolo Ph.D will guide you on a wonderful cannabis-activated journey to utilize the psychoactive properties for your own personal and spiritual development. With the help of cannabis, he’ll show you how to enhance your memory, increase attention and focus, intensify imagination, feel better about yourself, stimulate more creativity, and much more.

Obviously, this may not be what you’ve been told cannabis will do to you. But if you love this plant, you intuitively know that these outcomes and benefits are possible. So go on an amazing journey with this world renowned expert to expand your mind, enhance your creativity, and unlock new parts of yourself today.

Find the online course here:

http://greenflowermedia.ontraport.net/t?orid=10018&opid=48

You’ll benefit by understanding:

  • How to choose specific strains, dosage, setting and activities that will:
    • Enhance your memory
    • Increase your attention and focus
    • Develop your imagination
    • Feel better about yourself & your body
    • Enjoy more creativity
  • The science behind how cannabis can be used as a cognitive enhancement tool
  • How to successfully integrate what you learned during the cannabis high into your daily life
  • What type of cannabis you should avoid that will block your personal development
  • How to use cannabis to break free from psychological conditions like fear, doubt, and insecurity
  • How to unlock the full mind-enhancing potential of this incredible plant

This course is for you if…

  • You enjoy cannabis and love learning new things about yourself
  • You are a person who likes to explore other dimensions
  • You are drawn to cannabis for the psychoactivity
  • You’d love to have an expert guide to facilitate this cannabis journey
  • You are interested in connecting more deeply with yourself and others

This course is also perfect for professionals…

  • Medical professionals, patients and their relatives will better understand how marijuana acts on the human mind in general and in how many ways it can help patients like autistic children and others.
  • The course is also interesting for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists who consider working with cannabis.
  • Researchers interested in the nature of the psychoactive properties of cannabis, including physiologists and neuroscientists working in the field of endocannabinoid research.
  • Specialized cannabis growers/breeders who want to create specific strains to enhance creativity or which can help with autism spectrum disorders

Your Course Includes:

  • Over 2 hours of hands-on video training for how to better use certain strains of cannabis with specific delivery and dosage recommendations for self exploration & development
  • A private Q&A group call with Sebastián (July 6th at 1pm PST)
  • Experiential guidance including recommended setting, activity & applications
  • Handouts like the most important cannabinoid and terpene activation points & suggested reading
  • A protocol to help establish a baseline and consciously approach your experimentation
  • Anytime access to enjoy this online course (for life)
  • 30 Day 100% Money Back Guarantee

Find the online course here:

http://greenflowermedia.ontraport.net/t?orid=10018&opid=48

Instructor

Sebastian marincolo
Dr. Sebastián Marincolo, PhD

Dr. Sebastián Marincolo holds a Ph.D in philosophy from the University of Tübingen, Germany, with a thesis in the field of the philosophy of mind. His research has received several academic fellowships and awards by exploring the philosophy of mind, neurocognition, and on altered states of mind, with a special focus on the cannabis high. Marincolo has published dozens of essays on the cannabis high, published three books on the cannabis high, and has worked with marijuana expert Harvard Associate Prof. Emeritus Lester Grinspoon.

Personally. Marincolo has used cannabis himself for various purposes and financed much of his research with his creative work. For more than five years he was a creative director and consultant for one of the biggest foundations in Germany and has more than 25 years of experience as a freelance photographer. His art photography from New York City, Rio de Janeiro, Bali and other places has been shown in various exhibitions and art galleries in Germany and the U.S.

Find the online course here:

http://greenflowermedia.ontraport.net/t?orid=10018&opid=48

What a High Can Do For Sex

“If one wanted to depict the whole thing graphically, every episode, with its climax, would require a three-dimensional, or, rather, no model: every experience is unrepeatable. What makes lovemaking and reading resemble each other most is that within both of them times and spaces open, different from measurable time and space.”

Italo Calvino (1923-1985), If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler

How can a marijuana high enhance sex – if used with skills and knowledge under favorable circumstances? My short answer is: in many more ways than are usually cited. Even experts strongly underrate the wide spectrum of psychological effects of a marijuana high. I call this spectrum the psychological “effect-bouquet” of the high. The high affects a whole range of cognitive and physiological functions, from episodic memory, attention, and pattern recognition to the alteration of our sense of time, the perception of our body, imagination, creative thinking, and empathic understanding. Each of these functions can play a crucial role in the enhancement of sexual encounters. So, let me give you a short survey of the many ways in which these effects can enhance sex.

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Marijuana, Dopes, and Cognitive Enhancements

Norbert Wiener, American mathematician and philosopher (1894 –  1964)

When genius mathematician and originator of cybernetics Norbert Wiener moved with his family from Cambridge to Newton, his wife organized the move and let Wiener concentrate on his work as a professor at MIT. She knew her notoriously absent-minded husband would be of no help to her. She also knew he would forget they had moved so she gave him a piece of paper with the new address of their home. Later during his work, Wiener spontaneously came up with an insight, found the piece of paper in his pocket, scribbled down the idea, but then, finding an error in his workings, threw away the piece of paper. In the evening he drove home to his old address and soon realized that he did not live there anymore. The note in his pocket was gone. Wiener had no clue anymore where he lived, so he asked a little girl on the street: “Excuse me, perhaps you know me. I’m Norbert Wiener and we’ve just moved. Would you know where we’ve moved to?” The young girl replied, “Yes, Daddy. Mommy thought you would forget.”

The “absent-minded professor”-phenomenon has long become a stereotype and a popular character in countless comedies.

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Marijuana and Creativity – A Love Story

The Irish Poet William Butler Yeats, 1865-1939

“O! For a muse of fire, that would ascend the brightest heaven of invention.”

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

In a good relationship, a loving partner can inspire you and help your creative output in many ways. She (or he) may simply inspire you day-by-day with a beautiful smile, encourage you to compose your music or help you to relax and refresh your energy. Your beloved partner could also help you to discipline yourself, to keep focussed on a writing a book, drag you to a movie she finds interesting for you to help collecting ideas for a movie project, or provide valuable feedback during the creation process of your new musical composition. There are many ways a lover can help you to be creative.

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Marijuana and The Slowdown of Time Perception

Reggae Singer Peter Tosh with Robbie Shakespeare on the Bush Doctor tour, 1978

“Oh! Do not attack me with your watch. A watch is always too fast or too slow. I cannot be dictated to by a watch.”

            Jane Austen, Mansfield Park, English novelist (1775 – 1817)

 

Charles Baudelaire, Hurled Away by a Stream of Ideas

The phenomenon of a slowed down perception of time during a high is one of the most well known effects of marijuana – infamous to some, highly valued by others. Of course, those “distortions of time perception” can be seen solely as a risk for users – and it is certainly true that those perceptual distortions during a high can become dangerous, for example, while driving a car. On the other hand, many users appreciate this change of perception in safe situations as one of the most valuable experiences during a marijuana high. We have detailed reports about the slowdown of time already coming from members of the “Club des Hashischins” (“Club of the Hasheesh Eaters). The members of this cannabis club ingested large doses of hash marmalade, so it comes as no surprise that many of them became familiar with this phenomenon that shows especially under stronger doses. Charles Baudelaire, one the founding members of the club, wrote:

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Vipers, Muggles, and The Evolution of Jazz

“I’m the king of everything
Got to get high before I sing
Sky is high, everybody’s high
If you’re a viper…”

‘Viper’s Drag’ (1934), by Fats Waller

 

Without doubt the history of early jazz and the use of marijuana are intimately intertwined. Thousands of Hindu immigrants from India had brought the use of cannabis to the West Indies in the 1870s; where black and Mexican sailors picked up the habit and introduced marijuana use to the harbor of Storyville, the red light district of New Orleans, the city usually considered the birthplace of jazz. At the beginning of the 20th century, countless black jazz musicians performing in the bordellos of Storyville and in other locations in New Orleans smoke what they call ‘gage’, ‘tea’, ‘muggles’, ‘muta’, ‘Mary Jane’. They will later call themselves ‘vipers’ – allegedly named after the hissing sound taking a quick draw at a ‘reefer’.

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Nightmare Prohibition. Why the Prohibition Against Marijuana Has to End

The infamous mobster Al Capone profited immensely from the black market during the alcohol prohibition in the U.S.

Watanuga Lahele is radiating. His glassy eyes peep out under a large, conical straw hat, his movements slightly erratic. He has been chewing on a dark-greenish kalangi root and the drug tetralin it contains now clearly shows its euphoric and mind-altering effects. Lahele sits at a huge wooden table, as he does every in May, at the kalangi root festival in Bomaki, the capital of the Republic of West Africa. Hundreds of thousands of visitors have come here again to get collectively intoxicated at the festival. Lahele does not quite manage to get up from the table, he stumbles and falls sideways onto some other visitors. Soon, several people get in a brawl. The kalangi root is not only highly addictive, but also makes many of its consumers more aggressive. In the Republic of West Africa tetralin is completely legal, despite its mind-altering effects and various dangerous side effects.

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